Total U.S. annual shopper marketing/promotion/trade support (below-the-line) spend includes two sub-categories. Shopper marketing includes direct-to-trade promotion, slotting allowances, shopper marketing, direct mail/e-mail marketing, and yellow pages. Trade support communications includes experiential marketing/event marketing, branded entertainment/product placement, business-to-business media, search, offline public relations, and custom publishing/site development/native content. Digital investment in trade support communications (which offers more direct consumer connectivity opportunities than shopper marketing) drove shopper marketing/promotion/trade support growth, while traditional shopper marketing offerings such as direct-to-trade promotional allowances and FSI's declined in appeal. Jack Myers TomorrowToday forecasts that trade support investment will continue to grow through 2020.